An 8-year review of major congenital abnormalities in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria
Background: Congenital abnormalities are defects present at birth and are increasingly becoming an important cause of neonatal mortality. They can also result in disability in majority of the survivors.
Objective: To describe the pattern and outcome of major congenital abnormalities (MCA) in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods: The labour ward and labour ward theatre delivery records and admission records of the in-born ward of the neonatal unit of a tertiary hospital were reviewed retrospectively from January 2007 to December 2014. The MCA were classified according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, (ICD-10). Multiple abnormalities were counted once by the system with the most major anomaly. Abnormalities were grouped according to organ systems, sex and yearly distribution. Statistical analysis was based on systemic type, and neonatal outcome.
Results: Out of 14581 deliveries during the study period, 167 had MCA, giving an incidence of 11.5 per 1000 total births; 71 (42.5%) were females, 91 (54.5%) were male and 5(3.0%) had indeterminate sex. There was an increase in the yearly incidence from 2007-2014 The most frequent abnormalities were in the central nervous system (31.7%), musculoskeletal system (18.6%), complex congenital abnormalities group (15.5%) and urogenital system (11.4%). Fifty six (31.8%) infants died in the first week of life contributing 12.6% to the overall early neonatal mortality during the study period. Overall case fatality rate was 42.0%; case fatality was highest in the other abnormalities group, followed by chromosomal, cardiovascular and genitourinary system abnormalities respectively.
Conclusion: The incidence of MCA in this study is high especially in the central nervous system. There was a steady increase in the yearly incidence during the study period. The overall case fatality rate was also very high with a high contribution to early neonatal deaths
Keywords: Congenital abnormalities;Early neonatal death; Lagos;Nigeria; Teratogens.