Precocious puberty in a 24 month old Nigerian girl: case report
Precocious puberty refers to the appearance of signs of puberty at an earlier age than is considered normal. It occurs ten times more commonly in girls than in boys. The overall incidence ranged from 1/5000 to 1/10,000 children. The cause is idiopathic in 90% of cases of female precocious puberty. We present BA a 24 month old female toddler who presented with one year history of progressive breast development and 6 month history of pubic hair growth. There was associated increasing weight, height and vaginal secretion. There was no similar occurrence in the family. Mother attained menarche at 14 years of age. Essential finding at presentation revealed a toddler who is heavy and tall for age with a weight of 17kg (>95th percentile for age and sex), height of 90.5cm (90th percentile for age and sex), Occipito-frontal circumference of 49cm (normal). Her sexual maturity
rating was Tanner stage 3 for breasts and stage 2 for pubic hair. An assessment of precocious puberty was made. Her investigation result showed an advanced bone age of 5 years; elevated serum gonadotrophins in the pubertal range; and essentially normal cranial CT. Abdomino-pelvic USS showed an enlarged uterus for age, and a dominant right follicle with internal echo measuring 17.1mm X 15.2mm. Parents were counseled on the need for treatment to arrest the progression of precocious puberty but yet to respond because of financial constraint after 2 years of diagnosis. Female precocious puberty is ten times more common than male precocious puberty. The aetiology is idiopathic in 90% of cases and It is amenable to treatment. Integration of the investigation and treatment of childhood endocrine disorders into the National Health Insurance scheme will be a great panacea to the challenge of prompt management in developing countries.
Keywords: Precocious, puberty, 24 months old, female, idiopathic, poverty, Nigeria