Childhood pneumonia at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin Nigeria
Background/Objectives: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children and thus this study was designed to document the sociodemographic, clinical features as well as the bacterial agents responsible for pneumonia in children seen at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital.
Methodology: A descriptive cross -sectional study of children aged one month to 14 years with features of pneumonia admitted between July 1st 2010 and June 31st, 2011 was carried out. Sociodemograpic data, clinical features, complications and outcome were obtained. Chest radiographs and blood samples for culture of bacterial organism and full blood
counts were obtained in all children.
Results: Pneumonia accounted for 13.3% (167 out of 1254) of the all admissions during this period. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1, and 101(60.5%) of the children were infants. Bronchopneumonia was identified in 147(88%) children, lobar pneumonia in 15 (9%) while 5(3%) had a combination of both. Cough, fever, difficulty in breathing, tachypnoea and
chest wall recessions were recognised as clinical features in the study population. Bacteraemia was present in 46(27%)children and Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism cultured from the blood of children with pneumonia present in 11 (23.9%) out of the 46 (100.0%) isolates. Heart failure was associated complication present in 52 of the 60 children with one or more complications accounting for over 30% of all patients. Eleven out of the 15 children with lobar pneumonia had
pneumonia-related complications which was significantly higher compared to 46 of 157 children with bronchopneumonia, p=0.003. The case fatality was 6.6%. Eight (72.7%) of the children that died were infants while the remaining three (27.3%) were aged between 12 and 60 months. The mean duration of hospitalization among those who survived of 6.5 ±5.0 days was significantly lower than the corresponding value of 10.2 ±12.3 days in those that died, p= 0.042.
Conclusion: Pneumonia-related mortality and morbidity is high in under-five children, with the infant age group most affected. Bronchopneumonia is the most prevalent ALRI diagnosis but lobar pneumonia is associated with a higher mortality.