Effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces on anaemia induced and normal Wistar albino rats
The effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces on anaemia-induced and normal wistar albino rats were investigated using standard protocols. The haematological parameters which include haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Red Blood Cell count and White Blood Cell count were investigated in experimental rats. Twenty-four albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into six groups comprising four rats per group (n= 4). Twelve rats were kept unbled and were later assigned to Groups B (negative control), D and F randomly. The remaining twelve experimental animals were assigned to Groups A (positive control), C and E and were made anaemic by bleeding off 30% of their total blood through ocular puncture. Each of Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were administered the extract through oral intubation: 0 ml/kg body weight, 0 ml/kg body weight, 2 ml/kg, 2 ml/kg body weight, 4 ml/kg body weight and 4 ml/kg body weight of H. sabdariffa Calyces extract. The blood samples of the rats were collected using heparizined capillary tubes into EDTA bottles and haematological indices were analyzed. According to the result, H. sabdariffa calyces significantly (p<0.05) increased the erythrocyte indices which were initially reduced by bleeding. Significant (p<0.05) increases were observed in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and red blood cell count especially with 2 ml/kg of H. sabdariffa Calyces that also caused increase in the packed cell volume. In some, 4 ml/kg of the extract showed significant (p>0.05) decrease, suggesting the dose level at which the extract can have a diminishing effect. The extract had an obvious significant (p<0.05) increase in the white blood cell count and was able to reduce the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It could therefore be concluded that, H. sabdariffa Calyces extract can be used in herbal medicine to boost immune system and active components of Hibiscus sabdariffa could be isolated and incorporated in some drug formulations for more therapeutic effects. There is the need to exercise caution on excessive and prolonged use of the plant, since high doses may have a diminishing effect.
Keywords: haemoglobin; herbal; anaemia and haematology