Haemoparasites of volunteer blood donors with National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) in Jos, Plateau State
Haemoparasites are blood parasites which are endemic in Nigeria and can cause serious morbidity in humans. Understanding patterns of hemoparasites infections in humans can therefore inform about emerging diseases risks, especially in the light of climatechange. Infections due to these parasites can be asymptomatic; this asymptomatic infection has been one of the factors which has maintained transmission of these parasites, through many ways, including blood donation and transfusion. The effects of heamoparasites on donors age, sex, blood group and PCV within Plateau State, Nigeria, was investigated. Five hundred and twelve donors were selected by means of a random sampling method and their blood samples collected. Serological assay was done using rapid test kits to check for presence of antibodies (in the case of microfilariae) or antigens (in the case of Plasmodium) to the different haemoparasites. ELISA technique was used for the microfilariae investigation. Thick and thin films were made from each blood sample on grease-free slides, allowed to dry and stained by 3% Giemsa solution for 45 min for microscopy. Results shows 144 (28.1%) prevalence of haemoparasites and 368 (71.9%) non infection; 121 (23.6%) of the population were infected with Plasmodium falciparum; 11 (2.1%) were infected with Plasmodium malariae; 7 (1.4%) were infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense; 5 (1%) were infected with microfilariae, 4 (0.8%) of the 1% were unsheathed and identified to be Mansonell aperstans, while 1 (0.2%) were sheathed and identified to be Loa loa. Most blood group types were susceptible with the exception of only A- and AB- to haemoparasitic infections. Age-group (33-45), lower PCV and males have more infections. The result of the study therefore stresses the need to screen blood for haemoparasites before transfusion to avoid the risk of emerging diseases.
Keywords: Haemoparasites; blood donors; volunteer; National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS)