Research trends and prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in animals in Nigeria: A review
Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic infection caused by apicomplexan protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium spp. and is characterized by acute gastrointestinal infections in developing countries including Nigeria. Previous studies have established its incidences in some states of Nigeria. Due to paucity of information on its overall prevalence across the country, we used published data to discuss the findings of cryptosporidiosis in different animal species and their distribution from eight reported States (Borno, Kaduna, Kebbi, Ogun, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Sokoto) and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in Nigeria. Of these States, goats in Ogun State had the highest prevalence of 76.5%, followed by pigs (44.9%), whilst dogs in Oyo had the lowest prevalence rate of 0.9%. The review results revealed that 14 different species were observed affecting different animals with C. paruvm and C. hominis as the dominant zoonotic spp. Global and local control strategies for effective management of this disease were discussed. This review provides current research references for further understanding the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in
Nigeria, its epidemiological characteristics for prevention and also for public health importance of transmission in animals and in controlling the disease in Nigeria.
Keywords: apicomplexan protozoan; epidemiological characteristics; Nigeria