A survey of haematophagous flies and cattle trypanosomiasis in Ikara and Kubau Local Government Areas, Kaduna State, Nigeria
A survey of species composition and distribution of haematophagous flies as well as occurrence of Trypanosoma species of cattle was conducted between March and August, 2015, at Ikara and Kubau Local Government Areas, Kaduna State, using Biconical and Nzi traps. Twelve traps were placed for 48hrs along four districts in each of the local government areas and harvested every 24hrs. Blood samples from cattle were analyzed for the presence of Trpanosomes using thick, thin Blood smear and Hematocrit centrifugation method. A total of 232 haematophagous and non-haematophagous flies were caught during the study period. Ikara Local Government had a higher occurrence of flies 127(54.7%) than Kubau Local Government 105(45.3%). The occurrence of the haematophagous flies, Stomoxys calcitrans 107(85.3%) had the highest occurrence than Tabanus 9(7.1%) while Glossina had 0(0.0%). The rainy season had 212 flies trapped compared to the dry season with fewer flies. There was a significant association (p<0.05) between flies occurrence and seasons. The cattle sampled were positive for T. vivax and T. brucei. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between the occurrence of Trypanosoma infection in the study area. It is very important to mention that plans should be put in place for the total eradication of these flies and parasite as they could act as vector for the transmission of pathogens that can cause significant health crises in human and animals.
Keywords: Haematophagous; flies; trypanosome; Nzi, biconical; Ikara; Kubau; Kaduna State.