Point prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of game and captive wildlife in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana
The ability to understand the ecological dynamics of parasites allows for a more wholistic insight into the application of the one health concept in wildlife medicine. Using this method, the ecological dynamics of shared gastrointestinal parasites of wildlife, humans and domestic animals in the Kumasi metropolis was determined. The study analyzed 102 faecal samples (59 from game and 43 from captive animals) from Kumasi Metropolis using the flotation and Mcmaster techniques. From the study, the pattern of prevalence for helminth parasites was same for both game and captive animals with Trichostrongyles being the most prevalent (49.2% in game animals and 44.2% in captive animals) followed by Ascarids, Stongyloides spp., and Trichuris spp. Capillaria spp. was least prevalent in captive animals at 23.3% and just a bit more prevalent in game animals (8.5%) than Trichuris spp. (5.1%). Protozoan parasite prevalence pattern differed between game and captive animals with Coccidia (45.8%) more prevalent in game animals than Entamoeba spp. (6.8%). In captive animals Entamoeba spp. (20.9%) was most prevalent followed by Coccidia (13.9%) and then Giardia spp. (11.6%). This confirmed the existence of shared gastrointestinal parasites between wildlife, humans and domestic animals with the potential to be spilled over into wildlife or spilled back to humans and domestic animals, emphasizing the need for more extensive studies in wildlife parasitology and ways in which to reduce the risks posed to humans, wildlife and our domestic animals.
Keywords: Parasites; helminths; protozoan; wildlife; Ghana.