Urinary Schistosomiasis and Primary Evidence of Female Genital Schistosomiasis among Pupils in Nsugbe Community, Anambra State, Nigeria
Urinary schistosomiasis is considered a major public health parasitic disease in African communities. Prior to this study, Nsugbe community was not considered endemic for the disease and as such was not involved in Praziquantel-Preventive Chemotherapy (PC). Longitudinal study of 281 consented pupils aged 5-16 years was carried out with aim of determining the status of urinary schistosomiasis. Urinalysis laboratory test strip, urine filtration technique and syndromic diagnosis were used for the confirmation of the presence of haematuria in urine samples, identification of Schistosoma haematobium ova and the confirmation of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), respectively. Risk factors for urinary schistosomiasis infection were determined using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Minitab 17 software and intensity of infection categorized following World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Of the 281 pupils, 117 (42%) were males and 164 (58%) were females with mean age of 9 years. At baseline, an overall prevalence of 0.4% (1/281) which was of light intensity was established. At follow-up, an overall prevalence of 2.1% (6/281) which was of both light (16.7%) and heavy infection (83.3%) was established. The result of the clinical examination showed eggs of S. haematobium in and around the vaginal area indicating FGS of a female pupil aged 12 years. This was treated. Identified risk factors for S. haematobium infection in the community include water-contact activities, ignorance, source of water supply among others. The study revealed the need for an all inclusive mass administration of Praziquantel-PC in the study community for effective control and possible elimination.