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Nigerian Journal of Parasitology

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Acute Toxicity Effect of the Leaf Extract of Leptadenia Hastata (Pers) in White Albino Rats

NA Maurice, A Garba, VA Maina, YS Baraya, AH Owada, I Agang, SE Hambolu, A Sada

Abstract


Lethal dose of some medicinal herbs used across the globe, for various purposes, have been reported by various workers. In this study, the acute toxicity effect and the LD of aqueous leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata treated white albino rats were investigated. Thirty (30) rats of both sexes weighing 285-308g body weight were separated into six groups of five rats each (A, B, C, D, E, & F). The groups were treated intraperitonially with increasing dose of aqueous leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata at 200mg/kg.bwt, 300mg/kg.bwt, 800mg/kg.bwt, 1600mg/kg.bwt and 3200mg/kg.bwt and the control group (F) with normal saline. Symptoms of toxicity in each group were observed and scored in ascending order of severity and recorded, the LD50 of the aqueous extract of the Leptadenia hastata was calculated using arithmetic method. The acute toxicity signs observed were inappetence, weakness, unsteady gait, polypnoea and asthenia in all the groups; having unsteady gait and polypnoea being more prominent in 800 to 3200mg/Kg bwt treated groups. Result of intraperitoneal acute toxicity testing further indicated that there were mortalities at 1600mg/kg.bwt with (1) rat dead and at 3200mg/kg.bwt all (5) rats were dead. LD50 was calculated to be 2320mg/kg.bwt. The outcome of this investigation suggested that though safe, but at a higher dosage Leptadenia hastata is poisonous or lethal to rats and could pose a serious public health problem to human and animal subjects on a prolonged and quantitative consumption.

Keywords: Acute toxicity, Leaf extract, Leptadenia hasntata, Albino rats, Ld50

Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 32 [2] September 2011, pp. 247-250



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