Clinico-pathological Correlation of Digital Rectal Examination Findings Amongst Nigerian Men with Prostatic Diseases: A Prospective Study of 236 Cases
Aims and Objective: This study aims at correlating different digital rectal examination (DRE) abnormalities with histopathological results in patients with prostatic diseases.
Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 236 patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy (PNB). Inclusion criteria were presence of abnormal DRE findings or elevated prostate specific antigen above 4 ng/ml or both. They all had 10.core extended transrectal biopsy and specimens were sent
for histopathological examination. Correlations were made between DRE findings and histopathology results. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were created; the first evaluated the relationship of predictors (DRE findings) to the likelihood of detecting cancer and the second explored predictors of high.grade cancer on PNB.
Results: Two hundred and thirty.six patients were enrolled with a mean age of 66.9 years and range of 43.90 years. Histopathology results were malignant in 102 (43.2%) and benign in 134 (56.8%). Ninety.one (38.6%) and 145 (61.4%) had normal DRE and abnormal DRE findings with cancer detection rates of 23.1% and 55.8% respectively. Nodular prostate is the most common abnormality in 63.4% patients with abnormal DRE. Each sign of DRE had different predictive value with enhanced positive predictive value when combinations of abnormalities are present. Abnormal DRE is an independent predictor of high.grade tumor. Mean Gleason scores were 4.7
and 7.1 in patients with normal and abnormal DRE respectively.
Conclusion: DRE is a useful and important tool in assessing patients with suspected prostate diseases who need prostate biopsy. An abnormal DRE correlated well with prostate cancer and independently predicted high.grade disease in these men.
Keywords: Clinico-pathological correlation, digital rectal examination findings, prostate cancer, prostate needle biopsy