Haematological and coagulation profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Sagamu, southwest Nigeria: gender effect
Diabetes mellitus, a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, results in prothrombotic state that is enhanced by poor glucose and metabolic control. This study evaluated effect of gender and age on haematological and coagulation parameters of type 2 diabetic subjects at our facility. A cross sectional analytical study of type 2 diabetes patients and healthy non-diabetics who served as controls. Using semi-structured questionnaire, demographic and clinical information were collated from subjects' hospital records while serum samples were analyzed for haematological, coagulation and lipid parameters following standard laboratory procedures. Information gathered was analyzed using standard statistical methods. The study was carried out between March and August 2015. Study participants comprised of 120 diabetics and 60 healthy non-diabetic controls. The diabetics were significantly older than controls, mean age of 57.4(±10.72) and 46.26 ( ±10.11) years respectively with age range between 38-75 years, (p=0.001). Of the studied parameters, age, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and coagulation parameters: (whole blood volume, plasma viscosity, prothrombin time, clotting time, fibrinogen) and platelets were significantly higher in diabetics than controls, (p<0.05). The male diabetics were older, had higher haematocrit, blood glucose, bleeding and clotting time than the female diabetics, (p<0.05) who had higher platelets count, fibrinogen and erythrocyte sedimentation rate than their male counterparts,(p<0.05). This study affirms T2DM as disease of middle and old age. Female diabetics have elevated fibrinogen and platelet count than male counterparts and this portend increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes, Coagulation and haematological Parameters, Gender influence