Review article: Potential Impact of Climate and Environmental Changes on Occurrenceand Transmission of Arboviral Diseases of Livestock in Nigeria
There is strong evidence to suggest that climate and environmental changes especially affect the occurrence, distribution and prevalence of arboviral livestock diseases globally,The spread of infectious arboviral diseases involves at least 3 organisms: a parasite, a vector and a host. Climate change and alterations to the natural environment due to anthropogenic activities may change the milieu within which these entities interact, thus potentially affecting the epidemiology of these arboviral diseases and placing livestock populations at risk of avoidable outbreaks of vector-borne diseases, Such changes include increased ambient temperature, extreme weather events, changing wind patterns, deforestation, agricultural intensification, water projects, livestock trade and travel, and importation of used vehicle tyres. This paper reviews the potential impact of current climate and environmental changes on the transmission dynamics of arboviral diseases of livestock in Nigeria and recommends measures to mitigate their effects. Among others, strengthening of existing veterinary service structures for arbovirallivestock di.seasessurveillance, establishment of a national animal arboviral diseases early warning system, capacity building for arboviral livestock diseases research, reforestation and integrated vector management are identified as crucial factors in improving our ability to predict and prevent emergence and or re-emergence of vector-borne livestock diseases occasioned by climate and environmental changes in Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Climate change, Environmental change, Transmission, Arboviral diseases, Livestock