Incursion of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Serotype O East Africa Topotype -3 (O/EA-3) in Nigeria
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an endemic transboundary animal disease that affects livestock health across most of sub-Saharan Africa. Since the first official report of FMD in Nigeria in 1924, serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 have been documented within the country. Molecular epidemiology has been used to trace the origin of FMD outbreaks in the case of animal movement, inter-species transmissions and trans-continental introductions. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences of the twelve isolates (n=12) provide evidence for the presence of type O/EAST AFRICA 3 (EA-3) in Nigeria. The epidemiological situation of FMD in Nigeria and other West African countries is further complicated by the emergence of the O/EA-3 lineage that is causing new outbreaks in the region in addition to the West Africa (WA) topotype that has been known to be in circulation in Nigeria and other parts of West African and Central African regions. These recent development in west and central Africa, indicates the dynamic and complex nature of FMD epidemiology in the region and this is not un-connected to the nomadism in the region. In addition the un-restricted animal movement across the porous border in the region in search of pasture and water for their animal has contributed to the spread of diseases across the region. From the results the phylogenetic analysis of the O/EA-3 has close identity and was closely related to O/EA-3 from the 2009 outbreak in Sudan. Therefore, based on these findings a sustained surveillance is required to yet understand the epidemiology of FMD in West and Central Africa that will inform the type of vaccine and target areas in other to control the disease. The need to restrict animal movement across the border should be put in place and where necessary all animals that must move from one point to another must have proper evidence of vaccine certification before it should be allow access into the area. Finally for effective FMD control, regional vaccination and surveillance should be advocated and it should be backed by law. The need to have FMD vaccination at national as well as regional FMD control policy is strongly advocate for effective FMD control in Nigeria and across the regions.
Key words: Topotype, West African; FMD and Nigeria