Nigerian Veterinary Journal

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Salmonella Gallinarum Infection in Poultry Affected by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Nigeria

YG Dashe, HM Kazeem, PA Abdu, M Bello, SJ Dalis


Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease affecting almost all domestic and wild birds (Easterday et al., 1997; Alexander, 1999). The species of animals affected by avian influenza include birds, seal,
whales, humans, horses and swine (Websters et al., 1992). Avian influenza virus belongs to the Family Orthomyxoviridae which include the genera influenza A, B and C. Avian influenza virus codes for 10 proteins
including haemagglutinin (H), neuraminidase (N), protein matrix, RNP among others (Alexander, 1999; Swayne, 2003). There are 16 H and 9 N subtypes (Fouchier et al., 2005). Avian influenza depresses the
host immune system thereby paving ways for opportunistic microbes to invade and exert an exacerbative effect resulting in high mortality in affected flocks (Aleksandr et al., 2004). Salmonella gallinarum is
a Gram negative rod, non lactose fermenting organism of the Family Enterobacteriaceae. It is the etiologic agent of fowl typhoid which causes a serious threat to poultry industry particularly in tropical Latin America and many parts of Africa (Hall, 1977). The disease affects a variety of birds such as ducks, pheasants, quails, chickens, guinea fowls, turkeys and ostriches and it is a common problem in Nigeria (Oboegbulem et al., 1980). This study was aimed at isolating Salmonella gallinarum as well as
highlighting the possible complicating role of the organism in natural outbreaks of HPAI (H5N1) that occurred in Nigeria.
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