Clinical findings of traumatic proptosis in small-breed dogs and complications associated with globe replacement surgery
Background: Proptosis is a serious traumatic disease commonly affecting small breed dogs and possibly causing loss of vision, with globe replacement surgery (GRS) being essential in most of the cases after stabilizing the patient’s condition.
Aim: To determine the common dog breeds and clinical findings associated with traumatic proptosis and demonstrate the short-term complications following GRS.
Methods: The study was performed on 15 client-owned small-breed dogs presented with unilateral traumatic proptosis. Dogs were examined at initial presentation to determine the concurrent abnormalities associated with globe prolapse. The globe was replaced within the orbit and avulsed extraocular muscles were identified and sutured. Endoscopic examination of the ocular fundus was achieved 1 and 3 weeks after GRS in one Pekingese diagnosed with glaucoma. Complications following GRS were recorded.
Results: Pekingese (53.3%) and Griffon (26.7%) were the most affected dogs with proptosis in Egypt. Bruised, hyperemic and swollen conjunctiva and periorbital tissue, lateral globe retraction, cloudy cornea, and miosis were common clinical findings associated with proptosis. Exposure keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and exotropia were identified in all 15 patients at presentation. Complications following GRS included phthisis bulbi (53.3%), strabismus (26.7%), and lateral exotropia (20%). Intraocular pressure was reduced to 22 mmHg 3 weeks after GRS in the only patient diagnosed with glaucoma, and endoscopic evidence of optic nerve cupping was identified.
Conclusion: Clinical findings associated with proptosis at initial presentation may have influenced the outcome of GRS. Favorable prognosis may be given to patients with relatively high potential for vision at initial presentation and ≤2 extraocular muscle avulsions. Immediate surgical intervention following the occurrence of proptosis should be advised to achieve favorable disease prognosis.
Keywords: Clinical, Complications, Globe replacement, Proptosis, Small-breed dogs.