Prevalence and pattern of hyperuricemia in a survey among inhabitants of Sokoto metropolis, north western Nigeria
Objective. Hyperuricemia is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular, metabolic and renal diseases. Studies have revealed links between urate, cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome with considerable ethnic and geographical variation. Although clinical features may develop in persons with hyperuricemia, more than 60% remain symptomatic. There are no definite criteria for therapeutic intervention in patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The study attempts to determine the prevalence and pattern of hyperuricemia among inhabitants of Sokoto in a bid to identify associated factors and threshold for rational therapy.
Methods. A cross sectional survey of 161 adults in which demographic indices including physical examination, anthropometric measurements were obtained with urine and blood samples taken for analysis. Statistical evaluation was done, using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL)
Results. Hyperuricemia was documented in 20.5%, with male to female ratio of 2:1 and higher mean urate level in males. Urate level increased with age; ranging from 5.0mmol/L±1.8 among 20-29 years to 6.5mmol/L±1.6 in those aged 50-59 years. Systemic hypertension, type 2 DM, Obesity and kidney dysfunction were commoner among normouricemic than hyperuricemic subjects.
Conclusions. Hyperuricemia is common, especially among male gender and advancing age. The association between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular events remains a contentious issue as prevalence of type 2 DM, obesity and kidney dysfunction were similar in hyperuricemic and normouricemic subjects. We could not determine threshold to commence treatment for elevated uric acid level. A larger population and multicentre research is required to prove a link between hyperuricemia and some components of metabolic syndrome.
Keywords: Hyperuricemia, Prevalence, Pattern, Sokoto, Nigeria
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