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Butanol extract of <i>Manihot esculenta</i> leaf modulated cigarette butt leachate-mediated liver mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and its functional capacity

E.I.O. Ajayi
A.E Iyoha
F.O. Abdulazeez


Objective: The experiment was designed to investigate the modulatory effects of the butanol extract of Manihot esculenta leaf, in vivo, and against the effects of cigarette butt leachate, in vitro on liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT), and its possible hepatoprotection in female Wistar rats.
Methods: The powdery form of fresh, air-dried and pulverized M. esculenta leaves were extracted in 95% butanol using Soxhlet apparatus and concentrated to a sticky mass using rotary evaporator. Ethical approval for animal use was obtained from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria (LTH/EC/2014/10/237). Twelve Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 6 rats each, and a separate group of 4 rats were used for the in vitro study. The first set of rats was orally treated daily with the extract for 21 days. Following an overnight fast, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the liver mitochondria isolated by standard methods. Mitochondrial swelling and liver function assays were done spectrophotometrically.
Results: In vivo, the extract significantly induced low amplitude pore opening in the absence of exogenous Ca2+; whereas when it was present, the extract slightly inhibited same. Two concentrations of cigarette butt leachate caused appreciable low amplitude swelling in control and treated animals in the presence of Ca2+; in the absence of which highly significant inhibitory effects were observed at the same concentrations, in vitro. Significant increases were also recorded for AST, ALT, bilirubin, total protein and ALP, in vivo.
Conclusion: The extract showed promise for hepato-protection against cigarette butt leachate toxicity in the liver of normal rats in the presence of exogenous Ca2+, in vitro.

Keywords: Manihot esculenta leaf extract, cigarette butt leachate, mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore, liver function