Lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors among adults in Delta State, Nigeria using WHO STEPS approach: prevalence and rural-urban differences
Objective: To describe the prevalence and rural-urban differences in lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors.
Method: A cross-sectional survey of apparently healthy adults in an urban and a rural community in Delta State, Nigeria using the WHO STEPS questionnaire. Ethical approval was granted by the Delta State University Teaching Hospital.
Results: Of the 866 respondents, 56% were urban dwellers and 44% were males. The mean age was 42.5(±16.05) years. The prevalence of current smokers was 13.6%. It was significantly higher among rural dwellers (22.3% vs 6.8%, p<0.001). Alcohol was consumed by 58.5% of the respondents in the last 12 months; rural more than urban dwellers (79.5% vs 42.1%, p<0.001). About 75% of the respondents ate <5 servings / portions of fruits daily. This was significantly higher among rural dwellers (83.7% vs 67.4%, p<0.001). Table salt was added to cooked food by 30.8% of the respondents. The rural-urban difference was not significant. In a typical week, 40.2% of respondents do not walk or ride a bicycle continuously for at least 10 minutes to-and-from places; urban (47.6%) more than rural (30.7%) dwellers (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors are common in this study; more so in the rural setting. There is a need to increase cardiovascular health education and promotion activities.
Keywords: Lifestyle, cardiovascular risk factors, adults, WHO STEPS