Optimum INR intensity and therapeutic INR control in patients with mechanical heart valve prosthesis on warfarin oral anticoagulation at Dr George Mukhari academic hospital: a three-year retrospective study
Background: Available evidence suggest that the optimum prothrombin time-international normalised ratio (PT-INR) intensities recommended for anticoagulation of patients with mechanical heart valve prosthesis may not apply to all race groups. Optimal PT-INR target ranges and effectiveness of warfarin oral anticoagulation were determined among black South African patients fitted with St Jude bileaflet mechanical heart valve prosthesis (SJBMHVP) at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH).
Methods: A convenience sample of 95 medical records of patients fitted with SJBMHVP from 1994 until 2013 was reviewed. Optimum PT-INR target ranges were estimated using two different methods: the classical two PT-INR target level method and the alternative, PT-INR specific incident rate method. The quality of warfarin anticoagulation was assessed using the fraction in therapeutic range method.
Results: Optimum PT-INR target ranges for all participants fitted with SJBMHVP in the aortic position was estimated to be 2.0–3.5 and 2.6–3.5, respectively, by the classical and alternative methods. That of the patients with mitral valve replacement was estimated to be in the range 2.6–3.5 by the classical method and that of patients with double heart valve replacement was estimated to be < 3.5 by both methods. The quality of warfarin anticoagulation of participants with SJBMHVP replacement was
found to be inadequate as indicated by percentage time in treatment range (TTR) of 49.7% for all study participants compared with the ideal TTR of 70% and above.
Conclusion: Optimum Caucasian-based PT-INR intensities recommended for oral anticoagulation of patients fitted with mechanical heart valve prosthesis are applicable to black patients fitted with SJBMHVP at DGMAH.
Keywords: black South African patients, heart valve prosthesis, optimal PT-INR, time in treatment range, warfarin oral anticoagulation