The quadriceps angle and the incidence of knee injury in Indian long-distance runners
Objective. To investigate the incidence of knee injuries in runners and to determine the proportion of injuries involving abnormal quadriceps (Q)-angles. Design. One hundred male Indian runners between the ages of 25 and 65 years from 5 athletic clubs in Durban volunteered to participate in the study. The Q-angle was measured using a goniometer. Other relevant information was obtained using a validated questionnaire. The data were analysed by comparing measured Q-angles with ‘normal' values of Q-angles obtained from the literature. A paired t-test at a probability of 0.05 was used. Setting. Data were collected at club meetings. Main outcome measure. The primary outcome of the study was to determine the proportion of runners with abnormal Q-angles. Thereafter the rate of knee injuries in runners with abnormal Q-angles was determined. Results. Data from 88 runners were usable. Fifty-one per cent of the runners sustained knee injuries. Fifty-eight per cent of the sample had abnormal Q-angles. Sixty-seven per cent of the runners with abnormal Q-angles sustained knee injuries. Conclusion. More runners with abnormal Q-angles sustained knee injuries. There is a need to determine reference values for Q-angles for the South African population, the proportion of the population that present with abnormal Q-angles, and the reasons for this.
South African Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 19 (1) 2007: pp. 9-11