Effects of experimental lead exposure and the therapeutic effect of defatted Moringa oleifera seed meal on serum electrolytes levels of Wistar rats
The study was conducted to evaluate changes in serum electrolytes concentrations following experimental lead acetate (Pb) exposure and the effects of treatment with defatted Moringa oleifera seed meal (DMOSM) in wistar rats. Eighty adult wistar rats divided into 5 groups of 16 per group were used for this study. Rats in group I received only distilled water, group II were administered Pb solution orally at 480 mg/kg body weight, group III were co-administered Pb and DMOSM orally at 480 mg/kg respectively, group IV were pre-administered Pb orally at 480 mg/kg for the first two weeks and then administered DMOSM orally at 480 mg/kg for the subsequent two weeks, group V received DMOSM orally at 480 mg/kg. Four rats were sacrificed weekly from each group and blood samples for serum electrolyte analysis were obtained. Phytochemical screening of DMOSM revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides and saponins. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the mean serum Ca2+ concentration in the rats in group III (1.52±0.17) was observed at week 3 compared to group IV (2.24±0.16). Mean serum concentration of PO4+ at week 1 in rats in group III (3.62±0.15) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to group IV (2.89±0.18). Similarly, serum PO4+ level significantly rose at week 3 in group II (4.40±0.36) compared to rats in groups IV (2.61±0.11) and V (2.99±0.07) respectively. By week 4, the serum PO4+ concentration rose significantly in the rats in group III (5.47±0.11) compared to those in group I (3.27±0.24). Mean serum concentrations of sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), potassium (K+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) were not significantly altered in all the test groups throughout the duration of the study. The result showed inability of DMOSM to mitigate Pb-induced alteration in serum Ca2+ and PO4+ levels in groups II and III.
Keywords: Lead, Moringa oleifera, Phytochemical screening, Serum electrolytes, Wistar rats