A retrospective study of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in dogs in Delta State, Nigeria
The study evaluated the prevalence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in dogs in Delta State, Nigeria. For ten years, data of cases presented to Veterinary Clinics in five government clinics in Delta state were evaluated and analysed. The breed of dog, sex, age on presentation, the limb affected and the radiographic appearance of the lesions on presentation were reviewed. The treatment and clinical management approaches were also reviewed and discussed. Of the cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head recorded (N = 24) for the period under review, breed prevalence recorded 62.5% (Alsatians); 16.67% (Caucasians) and 20.83% (Mixed Breeds). Sex prevalence recorded 79.17% females and 20.83% males. According to age at the time of the first presentation, 83.83% of the affected dogs were 6-12month old, 12.5% were 13-24month old, and 4.16% were 25–36 month-old. Lameness was observed in 91.67%, while 8.33% of cases presented non-weight bearing lameness. Pain in the limbs during palpation of the hip joint was detected in 100% of the cases. Atrophy in the hind limb was identified in 41.66% of the patients, while 62.5% of the dogs showed different degrees of medial patellar luxation. In 91.6% of cases, the disease was unilateral, with 63.63% unilateral lesions in the right hind limb and 36.37% in the left hind limb. The study results showed a high prevalence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in large breeds of dogs in the Delta state. The management of the disease is mainly conservative with poor follow-up. Cost of surgery and management may discourage owners from follow up. However, surgery remains the gold stand of care for managing avascular necrosis of the femoral head in dogs.