Footprints of swine influenza H1N1 and H3N2 in pigs from southern Kaduna, Nigeria

  • D. Kabantiyok
  • B. Inuwa
  • J.K. Gyallak
  • A.J. Dadah
  • J, Abraham-Oyiguh
  • I. Shittu
  • C.A. Meseko
Keywords: Co-seroprevalence, H1N1, H3N2, Serotypes, Swine Influenza, Kaduna


Influenza A virus presents a significant public health burden worldwide, with the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic being the most dramatic example. Swine influenza viruses can be transmitted to humans through occupational exposures and in live pig markets. Novel variants can emerge in pigs because they can be infected by human, avian and swine strains. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and serotypes of swine influenza in pigs from a major slaughter slab in southern Kaduna. Using competitive ELISA and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays, 305 swine sera were analysed. The result showed an overall seroprevalence of 28.20% (n=86), with H3N2 7.87% (n=24) emerging as the most dominant subtype in circulation. Concurrent antibody detection of H1N1 in 5.26% (n=16) was also detected in boar 2.62% (n=8) and sows 2.62% (n=8). This study revealed swine Influenza H1N1 and H3N2 serotypes are in circulation in pigs in Kaduna State, and that reassortment in the instance of co-infection of swine host is possible.

Research Article

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eISSN: 1595-093X
print ISSN: 1595-093X