Incidence of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in dogs within Maiduguri, North-eastern Nigeria

  • H.J. Fomnya
  • S.I. Ngulde
  • S. Sanni
  • G. Bilbonga
  • S.M. Gana
  • M.A. Usman
  • B. Umaru
Keywords: Ageing, Carbamates, Dog, Maiduguri, Organophosphates, Poisoning


The persistent application of chemicals in pest control and agricultural processes possess a public health concern as their use are often associated with acute or chronic poisoning cases in both humans and animals. In veterinary medicine, pesticides such as organophosphates and carbamates are exclusively used in ectoparasitic control through pour on, tick bath and fumigation. The incidence of organophosphate or carbamate poisoning in dogs within Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria was assessed using three government approved and licensed veterinary centres. Data were obtained through the review of three years (2016-2018) retrospective cases of organophosphate/carbamate poisoning and administration of questionnaires to actively practising veterinarians. Investigation revealed that organophosphate/carbamate poisoning in dogs within Maiduguri metropolis constituted 37% of poisoning cases and was on the increase in recent years with 22.96% of the total cases reported in 2016, 34.08% in 2017 and 42.96% in 2018. The case was most prevalent at the peak of the rainy season around July and August. The common clinical signs observed include salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle spasms, severe weakness and paralysis. Management was usually supportive and symptomatic while antidotal therapy revolved on atropine sulphate only. The effect of ageing in organophosphate poisoning was neglected by most of the clinicians as more than 50% would administer atropine sulphate without considering the duration of the onset of poisoning. It was concluded that the incidence of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in dogs in Maiduguri constituted 37% of all poisoning cases where 22.96% and 42.96% of it were reported in 2016 and 2018, respectively. Enlightenment programmes for the public and professionals are recommended on the increased cases of poisoning and proper use of antidote in the treatment of chemical toxicosis.

Research Article

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eISSN: 1595-093X
print ISSN: 1595-093X