Assessment of Physicochemical and Major Chemical Parameters of Spring Waters from Iddo Wara Wale Local Area, Oromia Region, Ethiopia
The study was undertaken to assess the physicochemical and major chemical parameters of water springs in Iddo Wara Wale area of Dale Sadi district of Kellem Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 20 L samples were collected from five densely populated springs, namely: Ittisa, Abba Moga, Kersa, Ele Gonda and Merfata during drying season. All samples were analyzed for seven physicochemical parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and total hardness, and for eight major chemical parameters (SO42-, PO43-, NO3-, Cl-, Ca, Mg, Na and K) according to standard methods. Temperature, pH and conductivity were measured in-situ. The chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, SO42-, Cl-, Ca and Mg were determined by titrimetric methods. PO43-and NO3-were determined by validated UV-Vis Spectrophotometry while Na and K were analyzed by validated Flame Photometry. The mean values of temperature, pH, and conductivity were ranged from 19.78 to 21.85oC, 6.67 to 7.44, and 22.1 to 47.1 μS/cm, respectively. The results for total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, and total hardness were ranged from 17.8 to 32.9 mg/L, 5.12 to 8.06 mg/L, 5.76 to 7.56 mg/L, and 18.0 to 27.6 mg/L, respectively. For major chemical analyses mean values were ranged from 1.74 to 2.53 mg/L for SO42-, 0.21 to 0.31 mg/L for PO43-, 0.62 to 0.87 mg/L for NO3-, 3.1 to 5.3 mg/L for Cl-, 4.49 to 7.37 mg/L for Ca, 1.45 to 2.23 for Mg, 1.12 to 1.58 mg/L for Na and 0.61 to 0.81mg/L for K. All analyzed parameters were below WHO and Ethiopian guidelines for drinking water quality. The results showed that the waters were unpolluted and can fit for human consumption. However, for further improvement analyses of the remaining water quality indicators were recommended.
Keywords: Flame Photometry; Iddo Wara Wale; major chemical; physicochemical; spring water; titrimetric methods
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