Evaluation of quality protein maize hybrids for yield, association of yield with its components and other agronomic traits at Bako, Ethiopia
Maize is an important food, feed, as well as raw material for producing high-quality protein and carbohydrates products in Africa including Ethiopia. The study was initiated with the objectives to evaluate quality protein maize pipeline varieties in terms of yield and yield related traits, and to investigate association of yield with its components and other desirable traits at Bako. Eighteen genotypes were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Highly significant difference were observed among the genotypes to 50% male flowering, days to 50% female flowering, maturity date, ears length and grain yield. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher in magnitude than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) in respect to all the characters: The character leaf area index, grain yield, 100 seed weight showed moderate PCV and GCV. Whereas male flowering date, female flowering date, days to maturity, plant height, ears height, ears diameter, number of kernel rows, and number of kernel ears showed low PCV and GCV. Heritability in broad sense was higher for male flowering date, female flowering date, days to maturity, plant height, grain yield, hundred seed weight and ears length. However, low heritability was recorded for leaf area index, number of kernel per ears and ears diameters. Based on variability study genotype BH540, BH542, BH543, Kuleni2, and Obta, were identified as early in maturity; hence these can be used for developing early maturing genotypes. In present studies genotypic and phenotypic correlation of seed yield was positive and significantly related with, Leaf area index, Number of kernel per rows. This suggests that while selecting for improvement in seed yield is performed, this character can be kept in mind provided that the character should show high variability, which is the basis for selection to develop good quality protein maize. Improvement in seed yield could be achieved by direct or indirect selection for high grain yielding genotypes or for yield components positively associated to yield. It is expected that better performing varieties could be generated to increase productivity in Quality protein maize cultivars basically.
Keywords: Quality protein maize, Variability, Correlation, Genotypes, Traits, Heritability