Study of cytokines microenvironment during autoimmune diseases in patients from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
The development of autoimmun diseases involves an intricate network of cytokines that recruit and activate TREGS/ TH17 cells. This study was aimed to compare PBMC levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in AID patients and non-AID controls from Bobo Dioulasso. We prospectively enrolled 17 patients who had autoimmune diseases and 17 healthy donors at University Hospital SOURO SANOU and other privates clinical, from Bobo Dioulasso, BURKINA FASO, between november 2014 and december 2015 for this cohort study. Demographic characteristics and cytokines profile: IL-2, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, TNF-α and TGF-β) were determined. We used the immunoenzymatic technology to assess the titer of cytokines. We found that there was no significant variation of TNF-α level in normal controls and autoimmune diseases patients(P=0.09).The concentrations of cytokines anti-inflammatory such as IL-2, IL-10 and TGF-β in PBMC supernatant were significantly higher in the control group than in the group of patients with autoimmun diseases (respectively P= 0.1;0.004;0.016).The supernatant levels of IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 and IFN-у significantly increased in autoimmun diseases in comparison to healthy controls (respectively P=0.00001; 0.001, 0.006; 0.008 and 0.000).We also found that patients with SLE and RA exhibit increased levels of IL-22, IL-21, also, patients with RA exhibit increased levels of IL-17A. Patient with HT diseases exhibit increased levels of TGF-β. Based on the level of cytokines such as IL-17A and IFN-у, we demonstrate that the phenotype IL-17+, IFN-у+ T cell is major in AID. We have shown that patients with autoimmune diseases from Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso have proinflammatory cytokines produced by TH17 cells such as (IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 and IFN-γ) are abundantly secreted in PBMC supernatants. While anti-inflammatory cytokines in the regulatory T-cell pathway (IL-2, IL-10 and TGF-β) are poorly secreted during autoimmune processes. We also found in the study a high prevalence of the phenotype of the following TH17 (IL-17 +, IFN-γ + T cells). We propose that the therapeutic targets be directed to the phenotypes to fight AID.
Keywords: Phenotype, Cytokines, Autoimmun Diseases