Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of Propranolol Hydrochloride
Purpose: To formulate and evaluate chitosan acetate films designed for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride.
Methods: Chitosan acetate was chemically modified with acetaldehyde and the solution was prepared with 1 % acetic acid, in which was dissolved propranolol hydrochloride, was cast as films in Petri dish and characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The films were evaluated for permeability, swelling, and in vitro drug release.
Results: Drug content of propranolol hydrochloride in the films ranged from 0.9 to 1.4 mg/cm2 . Swelling was 570 % for chitosan acetate and 180 % for chitosan while drug release through chitosan acetate higher than through chitosan. Permeability coefficient was 6.12 x 10-4 and 0.97 x 10-4 g.cm2 / day for chitosan acetate and chitosan, respectively. FTIR and DSC results indicated that there was no chemical interaction between the drug and the polymers used. NMR spectra showed the appearance of specific peaks for acetate group. Differences between chitosan acetate and chitosan were significant (p < 0.05) with regard to permeability, swelling and in vitro drug release.
Conclusion: The films prepared using the synthesised chitosan acetate exhibited superior physicochemical and drug release characteristics to those of chitosan. The results also indicate chitosan acetate films may be suitable for delivering propranolol hydrochloride via the transdermal route which offers some advantages over other routes.
Keywords: Chitosan, Chitosan acetate, Films, Transdermal route, Propranolol hydrochloride, Permeability.