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Sickle cell disease is a genetic blood disorder that affects the shape and transportation of the red blood cells (RBCs) in blood vessels, leading to various clinical complications. Available medicines for treating the disease are insufficiently effective, toxic or expensive. Therefore, there has been a pressing need for effective and inexpensive therapeutic agents from indigenous medicinal plants. Petiveria alliacea, Canna indica and Pergularia daemia, respectively were evaluated for their cationic constituents as a measure for their antisickling activity in sickle cell anaemia disorder. The three medicinal plants were extracted separately with methanol solvent using maceration method for 72 hours. The extracts were concentrated using a rotary evaporator (Model RE, 200, USA). Phytochemical screenings were conducted using standard method, while other portions of the extract were subjected to dry ash digestion for determination of mineral elements by emission flame photometry (EFP) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Evaluation of the antisickling activity of the extracts was done using the sodium metabisulphite (SMBS) test. Eugenol, terpenoids and alkaloids were present in the three plant extracts, while K+ values recorded for Petiveria alliacea, Canna indica and Pergularia daemia were 54.30 mg kg–1, 180.10 mg kg–1 and 28.30 mg kg–1, respectively. Other mineral elements detected in the three plants were Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and Mg2+. The leaves extract of Canna indica and Pergularia daemia at high dose of 300 µg/mL caused significant reductions of sickle red blood cells from 15% to 6% and 15% to 1%, respectively at 90 minutes of the antisickling test. The research confirmed that extracts of both Canna indica and Pergularia daemia used in this study have significant antisickling properties in invitro studies than Petiveria alliacea.
Keywords: Antisickling activity, Petiveria alliacea, Canna indica, Pergularia daemia, sickle cell, phytochemicals, minerals