Occurrence and distribution of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediments of Earthen Fish Ponds in South Western Kenya
Persistent organochlorine residues in the environment are a threat to ecological health of aquatic organisms and pose a health risk to both animals and human consumers. Organochlorine pesticides were determined in water and sediments collected during wet and dry season from selected riverine and earthen fish pond sites in high altitude catchment areas within Kuja River (Kenya) between August 2016–May, 2017. Analysis of DDT and metabolites, Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) isomers and cyclodienes using a gas chromatograph (GC), and electron capture detector (ECD), confirmed using GC - Mass Spectrometry (MS). Mean (± Standard error) results of DDTs, cyclodienes and HCHs in pond waters were:- below detection level (BDL) to 0.27±0.03µg/L, BDL to 0.11±0.00µg/L, and 4.39±1.01µg/L respectively; and BDL to 0.23±0.01µg/L, 1.20±0.005µg/L, and 1.71±0.02µg/L in river water respectively. Sediment mean OCPs contents were significantly (p<0.05) higher for Dieldrin (3.043±0.43µg/kg), Endrin (2.56±0.460µg/kg), Heptachlor (3.61±0.02µg/kg) DDT (2.97±1.32µg/kg), Endosulfan (6.31.27±1.051µg/kg), Methoxychlor (2.15±1.641µg/kg) and Lindane (2.96±1.32µg/kg), respectively. A longitudinal spatial distribution pattern was noted for both water and sediment OCPs contents, demonstrating that cyclodienes are predominant contaminants in point and non-point sources in water courses. The study recommends continuous monitoring of OCPs in upstream catchment areas for informed management and policy decisions on pesticide use.
Keywords: Kuja-Migori River; Organic contaminants; Organochlorine Pesticide.
Submission of a manuscript implies; that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.
Copyrights for the papers published in UJAS are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the responsibility of the author to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
The journal has an online Open Access policy licensed according to Creative Commons Share-Alike Non-Commercial.