Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.
Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography. Seeds from twenty F1 and F2 progeny, and their parents were used. A procedure was followed involving extraction by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), followed by sonication to remove remaining proteins. A computer software Chromsword developed by Shimadzu Corporation was used to estimate different protein classes, after which data were generated from chromatogram. The highest Glutenin/Gliadin (GG) ratio in SDS-soluble and insoluble protein fractions in F1 progeny, were obtained from Wanda x Sceptre and Nata x SST 124 cultivars, respectively. In F2 progeny, the cultivar with the highest G/G ratio in SDS soluble protein fractions was Kariega x SST124. Cultivars with high G/G ratios in SDS-insoluble protein fraction were Sceptre x Nata and Kariega x Sceptre. The ratios of high molecular weight/low molecular weight glutenin sub-units (HMW/LMW-GS) in both SDS-soluble and insoluble protein fractions were comparable in F1 progeny with little variation among cultivars. In F2 progeny, Kariega x SST 124 led in high HMW-GS/LMW-GS ratio. The highest ratio of polymeric/monomeric protein in both F1 and F2 progeny was obtained from Nata x Sceptre in both generations. Therefore, most wheat cultivars revealed high breadmaking quality.
Key Words: Protein fractions, Triticum aestivum