Physiological mechanisms for potato dormancy release and sprouting: A review
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers undergo a period of dormancy, during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy is determined by environmental, physiological and hormonal control mechanisms. Dormancy is the final stage of tuber life, which serves to preserve tubers as organs of vegetative reproduction under unfavourable growth conditions. Since the duration of potato tuber dormancy and sprouting time bear significant economic importance, this review considers the regulation of dormancy and sprouting of potato by phytohormones and reactive oxygen species. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud breaking and sprout growth, respectively. The auxin seems to play a role in vascular development. Thus, tuber dormancy and sprouting can be controlled in potato by manipulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), especially H2O2 metabolism via the inhibition of catalase (CAT) activity.The possible mechanisms by which CAT inhibitors or H2O2 overcome dormancy and promote sprouting in the potato tuber are discussed.
Key Words: Cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins, Solanum tuberosum