Heritability for resistance to rosette disease in exotic Valencia groundnuts
Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is the most destructive virus disease of Valencia groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) in sub-Saharan Africa. Cultural, biological and chemical control measures have received limited success due to small scale farmers’ inability to use them. Use of host plant resistance provides the most effective and economically viable management option for the resource poor farmers. This study was conducted to determine heritability for resistance to GRD in Valencia groundnuts. Six crosses; Valencia C (P1) × ICGV-SM 90704 (P2), Valencia C (P1) × ICGV-SM 96801(P2), Valencia C (P1) × ICGV-SM 99566 (P2), NuMex-M3 (P1) × ICGV-SM 90704 (P2), NuMex-M3 × ICGV-SM 96801 (P2), and NuMex-M3 (P1) × ICGV-SM 99566 (P2), were made to generate F1, F2, BC1P1 and BC1P2 populations. Data on GRD severity were collected on a 1-9 score scale. Genetic Advance as a percentage of the mean (GAM) and heritability were estimated using variance components. Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) and Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) estimates were high (20.04-70.1%) in the six crosses, except for Valencia C × ICGV-SM 96801(18.1%) and NuMex-M3 × ICGV-SM 96801(17.1%), which exhibited moderate GCV values. Broad and narrow sense heritability estimates for GRD disease score ranged from 64.1 to 73.7% and 31 to 41.9%, respectively, in all the crosses. GAM was high in all the crosses (21- 50.7%), except for Valencia C x ICGV-SM 96801 (14.67), M3 x ICGV-SM 99566 (18%) and NuMex-M3 x ICGVSM 96801 (13.5%) crosses that exhibited moderate GAM. The study revealed the presence of variability of GRD resistance, implying that genetic improvement of these exotic materials is possible.
Key Words: Arachis hypogea, coefficients of variation