Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria
Research on mushroom and mushroom products is dynamic with global increasing interest. The natural habitat of mushrooms being the wild, it is imperative to cultivate mushroom domestically in order to make it available to the populace. The aim of this research was to assess the perception of consumers to consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria; and validate nutrition quality of wild and cultivated mushroom. A survey was conducted using structured mixed questionnaires, to gather perception of 90 respondents on consumption of wild and cultivated mushroom. Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer, sourced from the wild was cultivated using standard methods for mushroom cultivation and both mushrooms were analysed for proximate chemical and mineral components. Result revealed that 47.8% of the respondents got introduced to mushroom consumption through family settings; 53.3% of respondents were conversant with wild mushrooms, 27.8% with cultivated and 16.7% with both. A total of 71.1% was informed about mushroom poisoning; while 28.9% had no knowledge about it at all. About 45.6% sourced mushroom from the wild and 33.3% from mushroom farms. Only 28.9% consumed mushrooms for over 10 years; whereas, 13.3% had never tasted mushrooms. Year-round consumption was only by 12.2%; while 57.8% consumed mushroom once in a while. However, if cultivated mushrooms could be made available, 58.9% indicated interest in mushroom consumption. If nutrition facts of wild and cultivated mushrooms are the same, 38.9% were willing to consume cultivated mushrooms, 30.0% wild, 20.0% both and 11.1% insisted on no consumption. On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat neither of the mushrooms. Generally, from the results, both mushrooms possess adequate nutritive values; though, of all the parameter analysed, only zinc was significantly different (P<0.05). For some of the parameters (potassium, zinc, phosphorus, calcium, total ash, crude fat, crude protein) the wild mushroom had higher values than the cultivated; whereas for other parameters (iron, manganese, magnesium, carbohydrates, crude fiber), the cultivated values were higher. Both mushrooms were relatively low in fat, ash and moisture; and high in carbohydrate, crude fiber and crude protein. Both mushrooms were high in minerals. There is no significant difference between the nutrition facts of the wild and cultivated test mushrooms.
Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom