Resistance of Uganda soybean germplasm to Adzuki bean bruchid
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is among the major food and industrial crops grown globally for its high protein and oil content. Lately, in Uganda, soybean reportedly faces challenges with a storage pest, Callosobruchus chinensis. This study was carried out to quantify the damage caused by the pest and identify the sources of resistance in the germplasm in Uganda. The study was conducted at Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute, Kabanyolo (MUARIK) in Uganda, during 2015 and 2016. Callosobruchus chinensis was used to challenge 498 soybean lines under no choice condition, in the laboratory. Results showed no significant differences in eggs laid amongst the different genotypes; however the genotypes performed significantly different (P< 0.05) for adult insect emergence, median development period (MDP), Dobie susceptibility index (DSI), growth index (GI), insect percent emergence (% IE) and seed weight loss (%WL). Genotype AVRDC G8527 had the lowest % IE (6.31), DSI (0.7), % WL (0.02) and GI (0.07), suggesting high resistance. Weight loss of up to 27% was recorded in genotype USA 7. There was a strong positive correlation between number of adults that emerged with DSI (r=0.87), eggs (r=0.88), % weight loss (r=0.73), and growth index (r=0.996). Cluster analysis revealed that AVRDC G8527, a resistant genotype was closely related to S-line 13.2A, a moderate resistant genotype. Regression analysis, revealed that adult bruchid emergence explain seed weight loss with 62% coefficient of determination; while seed colour could be used to determine genotype DSI with up to 74% coefficient of determination. Genotypes AVRDC G8527 and G89 were identified as the most resistant genotypes based on levels of DSI.
Keywords: Callosobruchus chinensis, Dobie susceptibility index, seed weight loss