Differential grain yield performance of single cross hybrid maize in varied nitrogen conditions
Presence of genotypic differences in maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield in multi-environments would help plant breeders to make logical decisions in improvement programmes of the crop. Hence, the grain yield performance, heterosis and stability in hybrid maize in varied soil nitrogen (N) conditions in Nigeria were assessed using multiple biometrical techniques. Grain yield performance, heterosis and stability of 150 single cross hybrid maize were assessed with checks in severe N stress, N stress and optimal conditions in a replicated trial laid out in 19 × 8 lattice design for 2 years. The grain yield was subjected to analysis of variance for each N condition and combined across years. Heterosis was estimated for the trait, additive mean effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI); and genotype + genotype × environment (GGE) models were used to analyse the hybrids’ yield stability. The AMMI captured 93.7%; while GGE bi-plot accounted for 88.7% of total variation among the hybrids. Eight hybrids had high yields across the N conditions. Genotypes and environments affected heterosis for grain yield. Hybrids TZEI7×BD74-399, BD74-179×BD74-55 and BD74-175×BD74-147 were the most ideal genotypes for the N conditions; while severe N stress condition was ideal test environment. Hybrid BD74-170×BD74-31 adapted most to N stress; while TZEI1×BD74-399 adapted most to severe N stress and to optimal conditions. Based on yield, heterosis and stability, hybrids involving inbred line BD74-171 were recommended for N stress; while those with inbred lines TZEI1, TZEI4 BD74-170, BD74-128, BD74-179 and BD74-175 were adapted to N stress and optimal conditions.
Key words: AMMI, GGE biplot, Zea mays