Energy use in citrus production of Mazandaran province in Iran
Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life. Modern agriculture has become very energy-intensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy use in citrus production in the Mazandaran Province in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 155 farmers using a face-to-face interview method. The total energy requirement under citrus farming was 17,112.2 MJ ha-1, whereas 36.3 and 33.62% was consumed due to fertilisers and pesticides, respectively. Renewable energy was about 12% of total energy input. The energy ratio, productivities, specific and net energy gain were 1.71, 0.905, 1.104 and 12,251.4 MJ ha-1, respectively. Citrus production needs to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and to employ renewable energy.
Key Words: Energy ratio, fertiliser, renewable energy, pesticide