Heterotic performance of quality characteristics of bread wheat cultivars
AbstractHeterosis has made a significant contribution to the improvement of many crops regarding yield, quality and resistance to pests. The low wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity in Lesotho has necessitated exploitation of heterosis in commercial cultivars. Heterotic performance of 38 F1 and F2 progenies from 5 x 5 diallel crosses of wheat cultivars were estimated for mid-parent and best-parent values. There were significant differences between F1 and F2 progenies for all characteristics. In F1 progeny, a positive mid-parent heterosis was observed in Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) sedimentation volume, kernel hardness, break flour yield and kernel weight. Positive best-parent heterosis was obtained in all the above parameters. In F2 progeny, characteristics that showed positive mid-parent heterosis were mixograph development time, hardness index and SDS sedimentation volume; while positive best-parent heterosis was observed in mixograph development time, hardness index, kernel diameter and weight. A significant increase in mid-parent heterosis was observed for five characteristics in Sceptre x Wanda and SST124 x Nata. Another significant increase in mid-parent heterosis occurred for four characteristics in Nata x Wanda, Nata x Sceptre, Sceptre x Kariega, Sceptre x SST 124, Wanda x SST 124 and Sceptre x Nata. SST 124 x Sceptre, Nata x Wanda, SST 124 x Kariega and Kariega x Nata revealed a significant increase in best-parent heterosis for all characteristics.
Keywords: Best-parent heterosis, Triticum aestivum
African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 283 - 289