An Overview of Learning Cycles in Science Inquiry-based Instruction
While a plethora of researchers have acknowledged the importance of learning cycles as a model of instruction in a constructivist supported enquiry science education, the rising number of learning cycle models however raises compelling questions about validity, hence the need for a comprehensive overview and analysis of the comparative strengths and weaknesses of these models. This paper examined among the very many, four major learning cycles; 3E, 5E, 7E and 9E, on the scales of knowledge construction, to provide adequate information for decision making regarding their preference and use. While the 3E provides the very basic framework for expansion, it missed addressing the learners’ initial dialogic engagement with teachers as well as summative evaluation of learning. Critical analysis informed the conclusion that there are three main goals common to the learning cycles under review namely; the development of conceptual understanding, process skills and critical thinking. A well-planned and implemented 5E model generally meets the inquiry-based constructivist learning goals, although it is silent on transfer of knowledge outside of the classroom. This transfer of knowledge, provided for in the 7E, is the major meaningful difference between 5E and 7E. The three new phases introduced in the 9E, Echo, Emend and E-search, were assessed to be redundant. After a thorough needs assessment of the phases of the learning cycles under review, a six-phase learning cycle is proposed comprising Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate and Extend.
License agreement and author copyright
AJESMS does not require authors to assign copyright of their published original research papers to the journal. Articles are published under a CC BY license(Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The CC BY license allows for maximum dissemination and re-use of open access materials and is preferred by many research funding bodies. Under this license users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit) and remix (adapt) the contribution including for commercial purposes, providing they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author (read full legal code).
Availability of materials and data
An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in AJESMS is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications in material transfer agreements. Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the publishing team at the time of submission. Supporting data must be made available to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at the time of submission for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript. Reviewers may be asked to comment on the terms of access to materials, methods and/or data sets; AJESMS reserves the right to refuse publication in cases where authors do not provide adequate assurances that they can comply with the publication's requirements for sharing materials.
After publication, readers who encounter refusal by the authors to comply with these policies should contact the AJESMS publishing team. In cases where we are unable to resolve a complaint, the matter may be referred to the authors' funding institution and/or a formal statement of correction may be published, attached online to the publication, stating that readers have been unable to obtain necessary materials to replicate the findings.
A condition of publication AJESMS is that authors make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to others without preconditions.
Datasets must be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript.