Environmental Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Science in Cross River State, Nigeria
This causal-comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of environmental variables on pupils’ academic performance in primary science in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study namely: environmental variable questionnaire (EVAQ) and primary science performance test (PSPT). These were face-validated by measurements and evaluation experts. The items were further subjected to a test of clarity of language carried out by English language experts. The percentages of agreement for the judges who rated the items for content validity and clarity of language were 81.5 and 85.7 respectively. EVAQ and PSPT were trial tested with reliability coefficient values of 0.72 and 0.87. It was hypothesized that parental control, class size, and peer group influence have no significant influence on pupils’ academic performance in primary science. A sample of 1954 primary six pupils was selected using the stratified random sampling technique from population of 64438 primary six pupils. Data collected were analyzed at .05 level using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyses for hypotheses 1 and 3 and a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for hypothesis 2. It was found that parental control, class size and peer group influence significantly relate to and influence pupils’ academic performance in primary science. It was recommended that; parents should exercise control over their children, curriculum should be diversified and class size be reduced to, at most, thirty pupils to one teacher for high academic performance.
Key words: Parental control, class size, peer group influence academic performance, primary science, relationship.