Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia hirta against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris
This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate method. The extracts showed appreciable inhibitory effect (6-11mm and 2-20mm) on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris when compared to the positive control (penicillin). Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant to all the extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was between 60mg/ml – 80mg/ml on Streptococcus pneumoniae and 60mg/ml-100mg/ml on Proteus vulgaris. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 90-100mg/ml on Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100mg/ml on Proteus vulgaris. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and volatile oils. The result from this preliminary study suggests that the plant contains active compounds that could be used for the development of drug for the treatment of ailments associated with the test organisms. More work needs to be done on the separation and purification of active compounds in the plant extract in order to determine the role of each compound in the crude extracts.
Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Euphorbia hirta, Crude extracts, Bacterial isolates.