Malaria and Hepatitis B co-infection in patients with febrile illnesses attending general outpatient unit of the Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Northwest Nigeria
Malaria and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections are co-endemic throughout much of the tropical and sub-Saharan Africa and both present major threat to public health. A study on the prevalence of HBV and Malaria co-infection was carried out on 200 patients presenting with fever at the General Outpatient Department (GOPD) of the Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano using Gold Standard microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). The effect of mono and co-infection on hematological parameters was also investigated. Fifty one (25.5%) out of the 200 patients studied were Malaria positive. Females had higher prevalence rate(18%) of Malaria infection than males with 7.5%. Age group 15-24 had the highest Malaria prevalence (11%) followed by age group 25-34 with 6.5%. Higher mean parasite density (1,200/ìl) was recorded among subjects with monoinfection of Malaria than mean parasite density (518/ìl) obtained among the co-infected. Mean parasite density was higher in female than male subjects. Thirteen (6.5%) subjects were HBV positive. Males had higher rate of infection with 4.5% prevalence than females with 2.0%. Nine individuals representing 4.5% of the total population had co-infection with higher prevalence (3%) among the males. Age groups 25-34 were observed to have high co-infection rate of 1.5% and the least prevalence was observed among the age group 15-24 with 0.5% prevalence for both males and females. Hematological evaluation carried out on all the categories of subjects shows significant difference in mean values of PCV (P=0.041), Hb (P=0.018) between the co-infection group and those with malaria infection and control groups. However, no significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in the values of WBC, PLT and Red cell indices among the co-infected and other test group. It was concluded that co-infection with the two ailments had no profound effect on hematologic parameters.
Keywords: Co-Infection, Hepatitis B, Kano, Malaria, MMSH, Prevalence