Health facility-based survey of poliovirus antibody prevalence amongst children in Kebbi state, North west, Nigeria.
Background: High level of Poliovirus protective antibodies, must at all times be sustained in a community if poliomyelitis eradication is to be achieved. For some time now children have been vaccinated against poliomyelitis through various means in Northern Nigeria without authorities taking steps to evaluate the effectiveness of such activities.
Aim: This research was focused on assessing the overall success of the Immunization programme using children whose mothers have access to immunization facilities.
Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was designed to enroll children whose mothers had access to Health Facilities across the state. Eighty blood samples of under - five years old children in Kebbi state were collected and tested for the presence of poliovirus antibodies. Indirect ELISA was used to detect for the presence of the antibodies.
Results: Out of these samples collected, 65 (81.3%) have antibodies to all the serotypes. While 75 (93.8%), 71 (88.8%) and 74 (92.5%) have antibodies to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Older children 48 – 59 month had the highest poliovirus antibody prevalence 21 (95.5%). Female children had higher prevalence than males. Children who have not received any vaccination against Poliovirus had lowest antibody prevalence 9 (64.3%). Children who had more than four doses of the vaccine had the highest prevalence of Poliovirus antibodies. Urban children had higher Poliovirus antibody prevalence than their rural counterparts. Children whose fathers educational were up to tertiary level had higher antibody prevalence than those with either primary or secondary school level.
Conclusion: This study found out that age of the children and educational level of the children fathers had a significant effect on the prevalence of antibodies at P = 0.05. More work needs to be done in order to sustain the apparent success achieved in stopping the poliovirus circulation and outbreaks within the populace in Kebbi state Nigeria.
Keywords: Antibodies, Children, Kebbi State and Prevalence.