The implications of agro-chemical compounds (fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides) on farming/aquaculture activities in the lake-Chad and its possible current/future social effects
Field survey and Laboratory analysis were carried out to determine the implications of agro-chemicals effluent on Lake Chad water. Historically societies used traditional farming methods involving rainfed agriculture and limited ground water withdrawal with irrigation though an ancient practice, it affected only small parts of the world. Water in Lake Chad is facing serious environmental problems from prolong drought to desertification, pollution and biodiversity reduction. The use of water for extensive agriculture by the lakes riparian states is reducing the water and stressing the ecological balance affecting the organisms depending on it and also its availability to its inhabitants. Water quality is also an important issue in the Lake Chad especially where the rainfall being the natural input into the system is small, greater risk of fertilizer, pesticides, and other agro-chemicals/inputs, runoff from the soil to the lake water and also salt accumulation threat are imminent. The assessment of the Lake Chad water resource quality was therefore carried out carefully while understanding the linkage and interaction with Agro-chemicals using stratified random sampling method for data acquisition and assessment on the site. The results of the experiment indicated that five parameters, namely, PH, Cadmium, Iron, Magnesium and chlorine have contaminant levels above the threshold limit as major sources of pollution in the lake with possible existing and future problem. As a result of the adverse effect of the agrochemicals runoff in the Chad water at Kirinowa. It can be concluded from the results of this study that the lake is under pollution of metals from sources of agricultural operations, due to indiscriminate application of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers.
Key words: Lake Chad, Agro-chemicals, Accumulation, Contamination, Pollution.