Effects of different heat processing methods on the antinutritional factors (ANFS) level ofP. reticulatum seed meal
The antinutritional factors (ANFs) in raw and differently heat processed P. reticulatum seed meal were evaluated. The seed was processed as raw seed (T1), 30 minutes boiled (T2), 60 minutes boiled (T3), traditionally boiled (T4), 40 minutes toasted (T5), 80 minutes toasted (T6), 120 minutes toasted (T7) and traditionally roasted seed (T8). The seed meal was evaluated for saponin, tannin, cyanide, oxalate, phytate and phenols. The result showed that heat processing significantly (P < 0.05) affected the ANFs in the seed meal. Highest value of saponin (0.07mg/100g) was recorded in T1, while zero level of saponin was recorded in T4. The highest value (0.26mg/100g) of tannin was recorded in T1, while T4 recorded the least value (0.05mg/100g). Cyanide highest value of (0.17mg/100g) was observed in T1, while T4 recorded the least value (0.02mg/100g). The highest oxalate level was observed in T1 (0.04mg/100g) and zero level was recorded in T3, T4 and T8. Phytate highest level (0.14mg/100g) was recorded in T1, and zero level of phytate was recorded in T4. The highest phenol level was observed in T1 (0.06mg/100g) while zero level of phenol was recorded in T4. T4 is the most effective processing method that reduced all the ANFs with 100% reduction in saponin, oxalate, phytate and phenols. The processing methods used reduced the seed ANFs and therefore, indicated the possible utilization of the seed in animal feed formulation (fish inclusive).
Keywords: Antinutritional factors, heat, P. reticulatum, processing, seed.