Evaluation of heavy metals’ health risk index in vegetable amaranth and sunflower: a case study of some selected areas in Kano state Nigeria
The lack of regular Control of pollution produce from industries affects both air and soil in the environment. Vegetable Amaranth and Sunflower flower were used to study the presence of heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cu) produced as pollutants, within five (5) selected areas in Kano state, Nigeria. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), was used to analyze the samples obtained. Six (6) parameters; Daily Intake of metals (DIM), Daily Intake Rate (DIR), Average daily Dose (ADD), Cancer Risk (CR), Hazard Quotient (HQ), and Hazard Index (HI), were computed. 60, 05, 30, 50, 02 and 09 mg/kg were the highest values of HQ found to be for Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn, and Cu respectively, and are not within the safe range as reported by international standards. However 2.0 X 10-06 and 2.0 X 10-06 were the average daily dose obtained for Cd and Ni respectively. However when the average daily dose (ADD) was computed, 5.0X 1001 was the highest value obtained and 2.0 X 10-01 and 2.0 X 10-6 were found to be the highest values for the Cancer Risk (CR) for Cd and Ni respectively. ADD and CR were computed and compared with referral oral dose, but no possible deleterious health impact observed with respect to international standard.
Keywords: Heavy Metals, Health risk, Sunflower, and Vegetable Amaranth.