Phytochemical composition and antitrypanosomal activity of the leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata (Pers) Decne
Medicinal plants have been used to manage various human and animal diseases in many cultures globally. Nigeria is blessed with vast reservoir of herbs for the ethnomedicinal treatment of trypanosomiasis. The present study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition and antitrypanosomal activity of Leptadenia hastata leaf extract.The leaf sample was subjected to extraction by percolation method and the crude extract further partitioned into solvent- soluble fractions. Anti-trypanosomal activity screening was conducted using Trypanosomabrucei brucei infected mice. The results of the phytochemical analysis indicated alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and anthraquinones were present. The result obtained from the antitrypanosomal activity screening indicated that the crude extract exhibited significant anti- trypanosomal activity through reducing parasitaemia by 70%. Moreover, the most potent anti- trypanosomal effect was recorded by the dichloromethane partitioned fraction. GC-MS analysis of the derived fractionshowed phthalic, 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic, hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids. These bioactive compounds which are mainly carboxylic acid derivatives may be responsible for the observed antitrypanosomal activity of the extract.
Keywords: antitrypanosomal, Leptadenia hastata, phytochemical analysis