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An aphrodisiac is a type of food or drink that has the effect of making those who eat or drink it more aroused in a sexual way. Aphrodisiacs can be categorized according to their mode of action into three groups: substances that increase libido (i.e. sexual arousal), substances that increase sexual potency (i.e. effectiveness of erection) and substances that increase sexual pleasure. Fadogia agrestis (Schweing. Ex. Hiern), Rubiacea (Hausa: Bakin gagai; English name: Black aphrodisiac) is an erect shrub 1-3 feets high. Fadogia agrestis is a medicinal plant widely used for its reported antibacterial and aphrodisiac activities. The aim of this work is to carry out pharmacognostic standardization and safety profile on Fadogia agrestis root. Chemomicroscopic, physicochemical, elemental, phytochemical and acute toxicity studies were carried out using standard methods. The results obtained also provided scientific basis for the use of in folklore medicine. Chemomicroscopic characters present include; cellulose
cell wall, lignified cell wall, tannins, starch, calcium oxalate and cutin. The physicochemical parameters evaluated include: moisture content (7.0%), total ash (10.5%), water soluble ash (4.1%), acid insoluble ash (8.33%), ethanol extract (15.0%), and water extractive value (12.0%). The quantitative phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids (84.0 mg/g) was the highest phytochemical detected in the stem bark while the lowest was saponins (4.0 mg/g).LD50 of both extracts was above 5000 mg/kg and did not cause mortality in all the tested rats. The results of this investigation may be useful for deriving doses that are safe for human consumption of F. agrestis root.