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Occurrence and level of Aflatoxin M1 in fresh raw cow milk within Zaria metropolis

F. Mukhtar
S. Umar
A. Bukar
H.R. Muhammad


Food safety is one of the major problems currently facing the world. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), a quarter of the world’s food crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and thus should be rejected for food safety reasons. Aflatoxins are the most widely known and distributed mycotoxins in foods and feeds. They are potent carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic agents. Dairy cattle when fed with feed contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 may excrete Aflatoxin M1 in milk as consequences of dietary exposure. The aim of this research work was to determine the occurrence and levels of AFM1 in fresh raw cow milk samples. Fifteen (15) samples were collected from five (5) different sampling sites within Zaria metropolis namely; Dan-Magaji, Kufena, Gabari, Hanwa and Tudun-wada, three (3) samples each from the sampling sites. The samples were screened for AFM1 contamination using a rapid test strip specific for milk samples (Ring Biotechnology Co., Ltd. Art no.:100004-96T). AFM1 contaminated samples were subjected to HPLC analysis to determine the extent of contamination. The result was analysed using ‘ANOVA’ single factor and Duncan’s multiple range test was used to separate the means. All the samples collected were contaminated with AFM1 above the European Union set limit ≤ 0.05μg/L. Samples from Dan-magaji had the highest level of contamination with an average of 101.02μg/L, followed by Kufena, 62.96μg/L, Gabari, 60.71μg/L, Tudun-wada, 36.95μg/L while Hanwa had the least contamination 31.61μg/L. The mean AFM1 in Dan-Magaji was significantly different from means in other locations and this may be due to differences in type of feed given to the animals, degree of AFB1 contamination in the feed and metabolic activities of the lactating animal. Regulatory agencies should adhere to strict monitoring to ensure that AFM1 level did not exceed the acceptable limit in milk and milk products.

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eISSN: 2006-6996
print ISSN: 2006-6996